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Uyda tayyorlangan burger

Uyda tayyorlangan burger


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Qo'shimcha mega zavqlar! Yana qaerda u ularni uyda yasadi deb ayta olasiz, boshqacha bo'lishi mumkinmi?

  • 1 kg va 200 gr. cho'chqa go'shti bo'yni (agar xohlasangiz, mol go'shtini tanlashingiz mumkin)
  • 2 tuxum + 2 osh qoshiq sut
  • 4 osh qoshiq non bo'lagi
  • 2 osh qoshiq xantal (men loviya bilan qo'yaman)
  • 1/2 choy qoshiq sarimsoq kukuni
  • kekik
  • kimyon
  • zerdeçal
  • tuz
  • Qalapmir
  • 10 tilim pishloq
  • yog '
  • tuzlangan bodring, pomidor, piyoz bo'laklari, xantal, salat barglari (men yangi ismaloq qo'yaman), tuzlangan donut, kartoshka bo'laklari yoki sizga yoqadigan va ilhomlantiradigan narsalar

Porsiyalar: 10

Tayyorgarlik vaqti: 60 daqiqadan kam

RECEPT TAYYORI Uyda tayyorlangan gamburger:

Bu juda yaxshi retsept, ko'pchiligi 10 dona atrofida chiqadi, lekin siz miqdorini kamaytira olasiz :)

Go'sht yuviladi va kesiladi. kaltaklangan tuxum, ziravorlar va boshqa ingredientlar bilan aralashtiring. Go'shtni bir hil holga keltirish uchun yaxshilab yoğurun. Burgerlarni qo'lingiz bilan moy bilan yog'lang, kerakli shaklni bering va panjara ustiga qo'ying. Tayyor bo'lgach, har birining ustiga pishloq bo'lagini soling (ular hali grilda).

Yangi bulonni kesib oling, salat, burger va tanlangan garniturni qo'ying). Bu ayniqsa yaxshi :)


Aziz Jabroil uyi

O'tgan 61 yil davomida La Casa G'arbiy San-Gabriel vodiysidagi ko'p madaniyatli hamjamiyat uchun oilaviy resurs markazi bo'lib xizmat qildi. San -Gabriel shahrida joylashgan (Los -Anjeles chekkasi va MISSIONga ega shahar). Uy yiliga 6000 ga yaqin mijozlarga xizmat ko'rsatadi, ular chaqaloqlardan qariyalargacha. Markaz birinchi navbatda ispan va tubjoy amerikalik kam ta'minlangan qo'shnilariga cheklangan ta'lim, ishsizlik, qashshoqlik, til, uy -joyning etarli emasligi va tibbiy yordamning to'siqlarini engib o'tishga yordam berish uchun ishlaydi.

Markazga hududiy Presviterian cherkovi asos solgan, u mulkni saqlab qoladi, lekin ijara haqini olmaydi. Cherkov shtab -kvartirasi, shuningdek, kommunal xizmatlar xarajatlarini qoplaydigan har oylik mablag 'ajratadi. La Casa (501) C3 tashkilotidir.

La Casaning maqsadi - muhtoj shaxslar va oilalarni rag'batlantirish va qo'llab -quvvatlash. To'g'ridan-to'g'ri odamlarga xizmat ko'rsatish, targ'ibot va tavsiyanomalarni taqdim etish orqali La Casa xizmat ko'rsatayotgan odamlarning ta'lim va iqtisodiy farovonligini oshirishga intiladi.

La Casada taklif qilinadigan dasturlar va xizmatlar quyidagilarni o'z ichiga oladi:

  • Ellik ikki bolaga xizmat ko'rsatadigan ko'p madaniyatli maktabgacha ta'lim muassasasi
  • O'rta maktabda zo'ravonlikka uchragan o'smir qizlar va o'g'il bolalar uchun zo'ravonlikni kamaytirish bo'yicha maslahat
  • Ispan tilida ota -onalar darslari
  • Oziq -ovqat va kiyim taqsimoti
  • Barcha yoshdagilar uchun folklor raqsi bo'yicha ko'rsatma
  • Salomatlik tekshiruvlari
  • Ijtimoiy xizmatlar
  • Resurs va barcha sohalarda ma'lumotnoma
  • Gitara darslari

Kerakli xizmatlarni etkazib berishni kengaytirish uchun La Casa boshqa jamoat tashkilotlari bilan hamkorlik aloqalarini o'rnatdi. Bunga quyidagilar kiradi: Los -Anjeles okrugi bo'limi. Ta'lim bo'limi, Los -Anjeles okrugi bo'limi. Sog'liqni saqlash, Amerika Qizil Xoch, Sharqiy Los -Anjeles Ayollar Markazi, Kaiser Permanente, MAHEC, Santa Anita Oilaviy Xizmatlar, San -Gabriel Muvofiqlashtiruvchi Kengashi, San -Gabriel Vodiy Tibbiy Markazi, Alhambra Kasalxonasi, Ispan Ikki Tilli Vazirliklar, San -Gabriel Birlashgan Maktab Tumani, San -Gabriel Rotari Klub va Vecinos de Marengo.

Ko'ngillilar La Casa dasturlarining barcha jabhalarida muhim rol o'ynaydi. Bolalar bog'chasi yordamchilarining hammasi ko'ngillilar. Hamma ingliz tili ikkinchi til sifatida va ispan savodxonligi bo'yicha o'qitishni ma'lumoti cheklangan kattalar bilan ishlashga o'rgatilgan ikki tilli qariyalar olib boradilar. Mahalliy pudratchilar va qurilish ishchilari ishlatilmaydigan gimnaziyani ko'p maqsadli xonaga rekonstruksiya qilishdi, bu esa xizmatlar ko'rsatishni ancha yaxshilaydi.

La Casa-da ispan tilidagi alkogolizm anonim va Al-Anon yashaydi. La Casa Gabrielino / Tongva qabilalar kengashining qarorgohi bo'lib, uning xizmat ko'rsatish markaziga ega. Shu tarzda La Casa ko'plab hayotiy xizmatlarni bir joyda markazlashtirdi.

Bizning vazifamiz va maqsadimiz

O'tgan 61 yil davomida La Casa G'arbiy San-Gabriel vodiysidagi ko'p madaniyatli hamjamiyat uchun oilaviy resurs markazi bo'lib xizmat qildi. San -Gabriel shahrida joylashgan (Los -Anjelesning chekkasida va shahri ...


Tarkibi

Gamburger-fiziklarning o'g'li va San-Paulu universiteti professori Ernst Volfgang Gamburger, yahudiy-german va Ameliya Império Gamburger, italyan. Uning uchta singlisi bor: kino prodyuseri Soniya, badiiy rahbar Vera va universitet professori Ester. Uning akasi Fernando fotograf.

Filmni tahrirlash

Yil Film Direktor Yozuvchi Ishlab chiqaruvchi Eslatmalar
1985 Frankenshteyn punk Ha Yo'q Yo'q Qisqa metrajli film
1986 Matolar qizi Ha Ha Yo'q Qisqa metrajli film
1999 Rá-Tim-Bum qal'asi Ha Ha Ha
2006 Ota -onam ta'tilga chiqqan yil Ha Ha Yo'q
2012 Xingu Ha Ha Yo'q

Televizorni tahrirlash

Yil Sarlavha Direktor Yozuvchi Ishlab chiqaruvchi Eslatmalar
1993 Lukas va Juquinya xavf ostida! Xavf! Xavf! Ha Yo'q Yo'q
1994–1997 Rá-Tim-Bum qal'asi Ha Ha Yo'q
1997–2001 Disney klubi Yo'q Ha Yo'q
2001–2002 Disney CRUJ Yo'q Ha Yo'q
2006 Um Menino Muito Maluquinyo Yo'q Ha Yo'q
2006, 2009 Karnaval o'g'illari Ha Ha Yo'q
2008–2009 Audiovizual mavjudotlarning g'alati sayyorasida Yo'q Ha Yo'q
2012–2013 Imperator oilasi Ha Ha Yo'q
2012–2014 Pedro va Byanka Ha Ha Yo'q
2014–2015 Qaysi yirtqich hayvon sizni tishladi? Ha Ha Ha
2017–2018 Yosh qalblar Yo'q Ha Yo'q 25 -mavsum "Turli xillikni quchoqlash"
2020 - hozirgi Biz Beshmiz Ha Ha Yo'q Boshqaruvchi direktor
  1. ^London Olimpiya sportchilari uchun dunyodagi eng katta bayramni yopilish marosimida o'tkazadi, London Olimpiya va Paralimpiya o'yinlari tashkiliy qo'mitasi, 2012 yil 12 avgust, 2012 yil 3 sentyabrda asl nusxadan arxivlangan, 2012 yil 30 avgustda olingan
  2. ^
  3. "Pedro & amp Bianca seriali" Emmy Kids International g'olibligini qo'lga kiritdi "[Pedro va Byanka seriali Emmy Kids International ni yutadi] (portugal tilida). Milliy kino agentligi. 2014 yil 12 fevral. Qabul qilindi, 13 -aprel, 2019 -yil.
  4. ^
  5. Pavilion, Kristina (9 aprel, 2019 yil). "" Qarg'ish "uchun, Cao Gamburger 2º Emmini uyiga olib ketadi" ["Qarg'ish" uchun, Cao Gamburger uni 2 -Emmi uyiga olib ketadi]. Telepad (Portugal tilida). Folha de S.Paulo. Qabul qilingan: 13 -aprel, 2019 -yil.

Bu Braziliya tarjimai holi maqolasi. Siz Vikipediyani kengaytirish orqali unga yordam bera olasiz.


Uyda tayyorlangan go'shtli burgerlar

Uyda tayyorlangan narsalar ancha yaxshi, haqiqiy va hatto arzonroq. Agar siz ajoyib sendvich tayyorlamoqchi bo'lsangiz, bizning uy go'shtli gamburger retseptiga amal qiling va siz farqni sezasiz! Biz yuqori sifatli go'shtli go'shtdan foydalanardik, uning yordamida siz go'shtli medalyonlarning 3 ta mazali variantini yaratishingiz mumkin: klassik, o'simlik va pishloq. Keyin qolganini qo'shish sizga bog'liq! Klassik amerikalik cheesburgburg uchun chexar, salat va bodring, yoki mazali pyodmont versiyasi uchun toma, kartoshka va yashil sos ... va bu vaqtda nonni o'z qo'llaringiz bilan qilmaysizmi? O'z tasavvuringizni oching va bizga o'z orzularingizdagi sendvich haqida gapirib bering, albatta uy go'shtli burgerlardan!


San -Xoakin tumanidagi CASA

San -Xoakin tumanining CASA tashkiloti 2002 yil yanvar oyida San -Xoakin tuman sudi Jon Parkerning rag'batlantirishi bilan tashkil etilgan. Sudya Parkerning fikricha, CASA dasturi ko'ngillilari qaramlik sud tizimida har bir bolaga izchillik va e'tibor berishadi. San -Xoakin tumanida 1400 dan ortiq bola tarbiyalanmoqda, 130 ta tuman ijtimoiy ishchilari barcha tavsiyanomalarga javob berishadi va barcha dasturlarni qabul qilishdan doimiy yashash joyigacha qamrab olishadi va 10 ta mahalliy advokatlar qaramog'idagi bolalar va voyaga etmaganlarning oilalarini himoya qilish uchun sud bilan shartnoma tuzadilar. . Taxminan 1600 ta qaramlik holati ko'rib chiqilmoqda. San -Xoakin okrugi - Kaliforniyaning CASA dasturini boshlagan 40 -okrug.

San -Xoakin tumanidagi CASA bolalar zo'ravonligining oldini olish kengashi (CAPC) dasturi sifatida ishlaydi. CASA dasturi San -Xoakin okrug sudining qaramog'iga aylangan zo'ravonlik, qarovsiz va tashlab ketilgan bolalarning xavfsiz va doimiy uyga ega bo'lishini ta'minlashga intiladi. Tayyorlangan advokatlar tarmog'i orqali San -Xoakin tumanidagi CASA har bir bolaning manfaatlarini aniqlash va himoya qilish uchun Sud, Insonga xizmat ko'rsatish agentligi, bolaning advokatlari va jamoat agentliklari bilan yaqindan hamkorlik qiladi. ...

San -Xoakin tumanidagi CASA hozirda ko'ngillilarni jalb qilmoqda. CASA ko'ngillilari sudning "ko'zlari va quloqlari" bo'lib xizmat qiladi va ba'zida juda murakkab sud jarayonida bolaga "ovoz" beradi. San-Xoakin tumanidagi CASA bizning tumanimizdagi eng muhtoj bolalarni muvaffaqiyatli himoya qilish uchun zarur bo'lgan ko'rikdan o'tkazishni, o'qitishni va doimiy qo'llab-quvvatlashni ta'minlaydi. Ko'ngillilardan CASA bolasini doimiy joylashtirish masalasini hal qilish uchun kamida 18 oy majburiyat berishlari so'raladi. CASA ko'ngilli ishi hal qilinmaguncha ishni davom ettirib, uzluksizlikni ta'minlaydi. Ko'ngillilar har hafta CASA bolasi bilan aloqada bo'lishlari, kerak bo'lganda sud majlislarida qatnashishlari va sudga yozma hisobot berishlari kutilmoqda. Yozma hisobotlarga CASA bolasi uchun xavfsiz yashash joyini tavsiya qilish bo'yicha CASA tomonidan o'tkazilgan barcha intervyular, tashriflar va baholar kiradi.

Agar siz yoki kimdir CASA ko'ngilli bo'lishni xohlasangiz, Sheri Tidvell bilan bog'laning (209) 644-5319 yoki Endi Dominges (209) 644-5372.

San -Xoakin shtatining CASA tashkiloti 2002 yil yanvar oyida San -Xoakin taklifi bilan tashkil etilgan


Tarkibi

Atama gamburger dastlab Gamburgdan, [2] Germaniyaning ikkinchi yirik shahri. Gamburger nemis tilida Gamburg ibodati, shunga o'xshash ochiqchasiga va wiener, boshqa go'shtli ovqatlar va Frankfurt va Vena shaharlarining jinlari nomlari (nemis tilida Wien) navbati bilan.

Qayta shakllanish natijasida "burger" atamasi yakka o'zi aytilgan so'zga aylandi, u turli xil sendvichlar bilan bog'liq, xuddi go'shtli gamburgerga o'xshaydi, lekin bufalo burgeridagi bufalo, kiyik go'shti kabi. , kanguru, tovuq, kurka, elk, qo'zichoq yoki ikra burgeridagi losos kabi baliq, lekin hatto sabzavotli burger kabi go'shtsiz sendvich bilan. [3]

Ovqatning versiyalari bir asrdan ko'proq vaqt davomida xizmat qilganligi sababli, uning kelib chiqishi noaniq bo'lib qolmoqda. [4] Ommabop kitob Oshpazlik san'ati oddiy va sodda Xanna Glasz 1758 yilda "Gamburg kolbasasi" deb nomlangan retseptni o'z ichiga olgan bo'lib, uni "ostida qovurilgan non bilan qovurilgan" xizmat qilishni taklif qilgan. Xuddi shunday atir -upa ham Gamburgda 1869 yilda yoki undan oldin "Rundstyuck issiq" ("iliq nonli non") nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan [5] va go'yoki Amerikaga ketayotganda ko'plab muhojirlar tomonidan iste'mol qilingan, lekin, ehtimol, qovurilgan biftek pishirilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Frikadeller. Gamburg bifteklari 1847 yilda ish boshlagan Gamburg Amerika liniyasida ikki bo'lak non o'rtasida xizmat qilinganligi haqida xabar berilgan. Ularning har biri gamburgerning ixtirosini belgilashi va nomini tushuntirishi mumkin.

Boston jurnalida 1884 yil boshida "Gamburg biftekiga" ishora bor. [OED, "biftek" ostida] 1896 yil 5 -iyulda Chikago Daily Tribune "Sendvichli mashina" haqidagi maqolada "gamburger sendvichi" haqida juda aniq da'vo qildi: "Taniqli sevimli, atigi besh sent - bu gamburger biftekli sendvich, uning go'shti mayda bo'laklarga tayyor holda saqlanadi va siz pishirganda pishiriladi" benzin oralig'ini kuting. " [6]

Ixtiro talablari

Gamburgerning kelib chiqishi aniq emas, chunki uning ixtirosi AQShda paydo bo'lgan va odatda Charli Nagreen, Frank va Charlz Menxes, Oskar Viber Bilbi, Fletcher Devis va Lui Lassenga tegishli. [7] [8] Oq qal'a gamburgerning kelib chiqishi Germaniyaning Gamburg shahridan Otto Kuase ixtirosi bilan izohlanadi. [9] Biroq, u 1904 yil Sankt -Peterburgda milliy e'tirofga sazovor bo'ldi. Lui Jahon ko'rgazmasi qachon Nyu -York Tribunasi gamburgerni "cho'chqada oziq -ovqat sotuvchisining yangiliklari" deb atashdi. [8] Hech qanday aniq dalil ixtiro haqidagi bahsni tugatmagan. ABC News nashrining maqolasi quyidagicha yakunlanadi: "Bitta muammo shundaki, yozma tarixning kamligi. Yana bir muammo shundaki, burgerning tarqalishi ko'p jihatdan Butunjahon ko'rgazmasida sodir bo'lgan, bir zumda kelgan va ketgan mayda sotuvchilardan. Bu butunlay. Ehtimol, mamlakatning turli burchaklarida bir vaqtning o'zida bir nechta odam bu g'oyani ilgari surgan ". [10]

Lui Lassen

Konnektikut shtatidan Kongress a'zosi Rosa DeLauroning so'zlariga ko'ra, gamburger - ikki bo'lak non orasiga surtilgan go'shtli pirog, Amerikada birinchi bo'lib 1900 yilda daniyalik immigrant Lui Lassen tomonidan Nyu -Xeyvendagi "Lunch's Lunch" taomining egasi tomonidan yaratilgan. [11] Konnektikut shtatining Nyu -Xeyven shahrida joylashgan Louis's Lunch, kichik tushlik vagoni AQShda birinchi gamburger va biftek sendvichini sotdi. 1900 yilda [12] [13] [14] Nyu -York jurnali "Gamburgdan kelgan ba'zi dengizchilar bir necha yil o'tgach, go'shtni bulochka qilib nomlamaguncha, bu taomning nomi yo'q edi", deb ta'kidlaydi va bu da'vo bahsli bo'lishi mumkinligini ham ta'kidlaydi. [15] Bir xaridor tez issiq ovqatga buyurtma berdi, Lui esa bifteklardan tashqarida edi. Qisqichbaqasimon bo'laklarni olib, Lui pirog tayyorlab, uni ikki bo'lak tost orasiga qo'ydi. [8] Ba'zi tanqidchilar oziq -ovqat muharriri Josh Ozerskiy kabi Nyu -York jurnali, da'vo qilingki, bu sendvich gamburger emas edi, chunki non tushdi. [16]

Charli Nagrin

Dastlabki da'volardan biri 1885 yilda Seymur yarmarkasida ikki bo'lak non o'rtasida köftani sotgan Charli Nagrin tomonidan aytilgan [17], hozir uni Outagamie okrugi yarmarkasi deb atashadi. [16] Viskonsin shtatining Seymur shahridagi Seymur jamoatchilik tarixiy jamiyati ixtiro qilgani uchun hozir "Gamburger Charli" nomi bilan mashhur Nagrinni mukofotlaydi. Nagreen 1885 yildagi Seymur yarmarkasida cho'chqa go'shti sendvichlarini sotar ekan, xaridorlar piyoda yeyish uchun ovqat yeyishi uchun o'n besh yoshda edi. Tarix jamiyatining tushuntirishicha, Nagreen gamburgerni mahalliy nemis muhojirlari tanish bo'lgan Gamburg biftekining nomi bilan atagan. [18] [19]

Otto Kuase

Oq qal'a ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Otto Kuase gamburgerni ixtiro qilgan. 1891 yilda u sariyog'da pishirilgan va ustiga qovurilgan tuxum qo'yilgan mol go'shti pirogini yaratdi. Nemis dengizchilari keyinroq qovurilgan tuxumni tashlab ketishardi. [8]

Oskar Viber Bilbi

Oskar Viber Bilbi oilasining ta'kidlashicha, bufetdagi birinchi mashhur gamburger 1891 yil 4-iyulda Oskar boboning fermasida xizmat qilingan. Xamirturush xamirturush edi. [20] [21] [22] 1995 yilda gubernator Frenk Kiting 1891 yilda Oklaxoma shtatining Tulsa shahrida bulochkada birinchi haqiqiy gamburger yaratilgan va iste'mol qilinganini e'lon qilib, Tulsa shahrini "Gamburgerning haqiqiy tug'ilgan joyi" deb atagan. [2. 3]

Frank va Charlz Menches

Frank va Charlz Menches 1885 yilda Gamburgda (Nyu -York) Erie County yarmarkasida maydalangan mol go'shti sendvichini sotishganini da'vo qilishadi. [16] Yarmarka paytida, ular sendvich va cho'chqa go'shti uchun cho'chqa go'shti kolbasalari tugadi. [17] Kunzog [ JSSV? ] Frank Menches bilan gaplashgan, ular kolbasa etkazib berishni tugatganini aytdi, shuning uchun qassob Endryu Kleindan tug'ralgan mol go'shti sotib oldi. Tarixchi Jozef Streamerning yozishicha, go'sht Shtayn bozorni 1874 yilda sotgan bo'lsa -da, u Kleynniki emas, balki Shtayn bozoridan kelgan. [17] Frank Menchesning nekrologiyasi The New York Times aytilishicha, bu voqealar 1892 yil Ogayo shtatining Akron shahrida Summit County yarmarkasida bo'lib o'tgan. [24]

Fletcher Devis

Texasning Afina shahridan Fletcher Devis gamburgerni ixtiro qilganini da'vo qildi. Og'zaki tarixga ko'ra, 1880 -yillarda u Afinada tushlik peshtaxtasini ochgan va yonida tuzlangan, ikki bo'lak non o'rtasida xantal va Bermud piyozi bilan qovurilgan mol go'shtidan tayyorlangan "burger" xizmat qilgan. [8] Hikoya shundan iboratki, 1904 yilda Devis va uning rafiqasi Siddi Sankt -Peterburgda sendvich stendini boshqargan. Lui jahon ko'rgazmasi. [8] Tarixchi Frank X. Tolbert, Afina fuqarosi Klint Merkisonning aytishicha, uning bobosi gamburgerni 1880 -yillarga "Old Deyv" a.k.a. Fletcher Devis. [17] 1904 yildagi "Old Deyvning gamburger stendi" fotosurati Tolbertga da'vo dalili sifatida yuborilgan. [17]

Gamburger-biftek haqidagi boshqa da'volar

Turli xil ixtirolarga xos bo'lmagan da'volar "gamburger biftek" atamasi bilan bog'liq bo'lib, uning sendvich ekanligini eslatmaydi. Gamburger ro'yxatiga kiritilgan birinchi bosilgan Amerika menyusi 1834 yilda Nyu -Yorkdagi Delmoniko menyusi bo'lgan. [25] Biroq, asl menyu printeri 1834 yilda ishlamagan. [22] 1889 yilda Vashingtondagi Walla Walla Union ittifoqining menyusi menyu elementi sifatida gamburger biftekini taklif qilgan. [8]

1871 va 1884 yillar orasida "Gamburg Beefsteak" Kaliforniyaning San -Fernando shahridagi Tinch okeani ko'chasi 311/313 da Clipper restoranining "Nonushta va kechki ovqat menyusida" bo'lgan. Uning narxi 10 sent edi - qo'y go'shti, cho'chqa go'shti va qovurilgan dana bilan bir xil narx. Biroq, bu kechki ovqat menyusida yo'q edi. Faqat "Cho'chqa boshi", "Buzoq tili" va "Bug'langan buyraklar" ro'yxatiga kiritilgan. [26] Boshqa da'vo gamburgerni Summit okrugi, Nyu -York yoki Ogayo bilan bog'laydi. Summit okrugi, Ogayo shtati, lekin Nyu -Yorkning Summit okrugida yo'q. [17]

Birinchi yirik sotuvchilar

  • 1921 yil: Oq qal'a, Vichita, Kanzas. AQShda keng tarqalgan Germaniyaga qarshi kayfiyat tufayli. Birinchi jahon urushi paytida gamburgerlarning muqobil nomi Solsberi biftek edi. Urushdan so'ng, "White Castle" restoranlar tarmog'i 65 mm (2 + 1 /2 dyuymli) kvadrat gamburgerlarni katta miqdorda sotmaguncha, gamburgerlar mashhur bo'lmay qoldi. slayderlar [iqtibos kerak]. Ular har bir pirogda beshta teshik yaratishni boshladilar, bu ularga bir xil pishirishga va burgerni ag'darish zaruriyatini yo'q qilishga yordam beradi. 1995 yilda White Castle muzlatilgan gamburgerlarni do'konlar va avtomatlarda sotishni boshladi. [27]
  • 1923: Kewpee gamburgerlari yoki Kewpee mehmonxonalari, Flint, Michigan. Kewpee ikkinchi gamburger zanjiri edi va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan oldin 400 nuqtada cho'qqisiga chiqdi. Ularning ko'pchiligi litsenziyaga ega, lekin qat'iy franchayzaga ega emas edi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida ko'pchilik yopildi. 1955 yildan 1967 yilgacha boshqa to'lqin yopildi yoki ismning o'zgarishiga sabab bo'ldi. 1967 yilda Kewpee litsenziyasi kompaniyani franchayzing tizimiga o'tkazdi. Hozirda faqat beshta joy mavjud.
  • 1926: Oq minoradagi gamburgerlar
  • 1927 yil: Kichik taverna
  • 1930 -yillar: Oq qal'a (II Genrix Kassada tomonidan boshqariladi)
  • 1931: Kristal (restoran) [28]
  • 1936 yil: Katta bola. 1937 yilda Bob Vayan Kaliforniyadagi Glendeyldagi gamburger stendida ikki qavatli gamburger yaratdi. Big Boy gamburger, maskot va restoranlarning nomiga aylanadi. Big Boy milliy franchayzing va subfranchayzing orqali milliy miqyosda kengaytirildi. 1950-yillarda birinchi navbatda restoran sifatida faoliyat yuritgan, 1970-yillarning boshlarida ichki ovqatlanish asta-sekin chekka xizmatini almashtirgan. Ko'p franchayzlar yopildi yoki mustaqil ravishda ishlaydilar, lekin qolgan Amerika restoranlarida Big Boy ikki qavatli gamburger imzo sifatida qoladi.
  • 1940: San -Bernardino, Kaliforniya shtatidagi McDonald's restorani Richard va Moris MakDonald tomonidan ochildi. Ularning 1948 yilda "Speedee xizmat ko'rsatish tizimi" ni joriy etishi zamonaviy fast-fud restoranining tamoyillarini o'rnatdi. Aka-uka McDonald 1953 yilda franchayzingni boshladilar. 1961 yilda Ray Kroc (ularning ko'p mikserli milkshake mashinalarini etkazib beruvchisi) kompaniyani aka-ukalardan 2,7 million dollarga va royalti 1,9 foizga sotib oldi. [29]

Gamburger odatda tez tayyorlanadigan restoranlarning o'ziga xos xususiyati hisoblanadi. Tez ovqatlanish korxonalarida xizmat ko'rsatiladigan gamburgerlar odatda fabrikalarda ommaviy ishlab chiqariladi va saytga etkazib berish uchun muzlatiladi. [30] Bu gamburgerlar ingichka va bir xil qalinlikda bo'lib, ular uylarda va an'anaviy restoranlarda tayyorlanadigan an'anaviy Amerika gamburgeridan farq qiladi. Ko'pgina Amerika gamburgerlari yumaloq, lekin ba'zi tez tayyorlanadigan tarmoqlar, masalan, Vendi, to'rtburchaklar kesilgan gamburgerlarni sotadilar. Fast tamaddi qilishga mo'ljallangan restoranlarda gamburger odatda panjara bilan pishiriladi, lekin ba'zi firmalar, masalan, Burger King gazli olovda panjara qilishdan foydalanadilar. An'anaviy amerikalik restoranlarda gamburgerlarga "kamdan-kam" buyurtma berish mumkin, lekin odatda oziq-ovqat xavfsizligi nuqtai nazaridan o'rtacha yoki yaxshi tayyorlanadi. Tez tayyorlanadigan restoranlar odatda bunday imkoniyatni taklif qilmaydi.

McDonald's fastfud tarmog'i dunyodagi eng ko'p sotiladigan gamburgerlardan biri bo'lgan Big Mac-ni sotadi va har yili AQShda 550 millionga sotiladi. [31] Boshqa yirik fastfud tarmoqlari, shu jumladan Burger King (Avstraliyada "Och Jek" nomi bilan ham tanilgan), A & ampW, Culver's, Whataburger, Carl's Jr./Hardee ning zanjiri, Vendi (to'rtburchaklar bilan mashhur), Jek Box, Cook Out, Harvey's, Shake Shack, In-N-Out Burger, Five Guys, Fatburger, Vera's, Burgerville, Back Yard Burgers, Lick's Homeburger, Roy Rogers, Smashburger va Sonic ham gamburger savdosiga tayanadi. Fuddruckers va Red Robin gamburger zanjirlari bo'lib, ular o'rta darajadagi "restoran uslubidagi" gamburgerlarga ixtisoslashgan.

Ba'zi restoranlar qimmatbaho go'sht va turli xil pishloqlar, qo'shimchalar va soslar yordamida murakkab burgerlarni taklif qilishadi. Bir misol, taniqli oshpaz va Food Network yulduzi Bobbi Fley tomonidan tashkil etilgan Bobby's Burger Palace zanjiri.

Gamburgerlar tez tayyorlanadigan kechki ovqat, piknik yoki ziyofat sifatida xizmat qilinadi va ko'pincha ochiq havoda barbekyu panjarasida pishiriladi.

Yuqori sifatli gamburger pirogi butunlay qiyma go'shtdan va ziravorlardan tayyorlanadi, ularni un kabi qo'shimchali tejamkorlik bilan ishlab chiqarilgan arzon gamburgerlardan ajratish uchun ularni "hamma go'shtli gamburger" yoki "hamma go'shtli pirog" deb ta'riflash mumkin. teksturalangan o'simlik oqsili, ammiak bilan ishlangan yog'siz mol go'shti (Beef Products Inc kompaniyasi uni "mayda mayda go'shtli go'sht" deb ataydi), [32] [33] go'shtni qayta tiklash yoki boshqa to'ldiruvchilar. 1930 -yillarda er jigari ba'zida qo'shilgan. Ba'zi oshpazlar pishiriqlarini tuxum yoki non bo'lagi kabi bog'ichlar bilan tayyorlaydilar. Ziravorlar tuz va qalampirni, maydanoz, piyoz, soya sousi, Ming orol kiyimi, piyoz sho'rva aralashmasi yoki Worcestershire sosini o'z ichiga olishi mumkin. Ko'plab markali tajribali tuz mahsulotlari ham ishlatiladi.

Xavfsizlik

Xom gamburger tarkibida zararli bakteriyalar bo'lishi mumkin, ular oziq-ovqat bilan bog'liq kasalliklarni keltirib chiqarishi mumkin Escherichia coli O157: H7, vaqti -vaqti bilan go'shtni noto'g'ri tayyorlash tufayli, ishlov berish va pishirish paytida ehtiyot bo'lish kerak. Oziq-ovqat kasalliklari ehtimoli tufayli, USDA gamburgerlarni 160 ° F (71 ° C) ichki haroratda pishirishni tavsiya qiladi. [34] Agar shunday haroratda pishirilsa, ular yaxshi ishlangan hisoblanadi. [35]

Boshqa go'shtlar

Burgerlarni mol go'shtidan boshqa ingredientlardan tayyorlangan piroglar bilan ham tayyorlash mumkin. [36] Masalan, a kurka burger qiyma kurka go’shtidan foydalanadi, a tovuq burger maydalangan tovuq go'shtidan foydalanadi. A bufalo burger bizondan tayyorlangan go'shtni ishlatadi va an tuyaqush burger maydalangan tuyaqush go'shtidan tayyorlanadi. Kiyik burgerida kiyikdan olingan yirtqich go'sht ishlatiladi. [37]

Veggie burgerlari

Vegetarian va vegetarian burgerlari go'sht analogidan, tofu, TVP, seitan (bug'doy kleykovina), korn, loviya, don yoki sabzavotlarning assortimentidan tayyorlanishi mumkin, ularni maydalab, pirog qilib maydalab qo'yish mumkin.

Sabzavotli piroglar ming yillar davomida Evrosiyo oshxonalarida mavjud bo'lgan va hind oshxonasining odatiy taomidir.

Biftek burgerlari

A biftek burger Gamburger uchun marketing atamasi yuqori sifatga ega, [38] [39] [40] Avstraliyadan tashqari, bu erda biftek bo'lgan sendvich.

Biftek burgerlari haqida birinchi marta 1920 -yillarda tilga olingan. Boshqa gamburgerlar kabi, ular turli xil qo'shimchalar va qo'shimchalar bilan tayyorlanishi mumkin.

"Steakburger" atamasi AQShda 1920 -yillarga to'g'ri keladi. [41] AQShda 1934 yilda A.H. "Gus" Belt, Steak 'n Shake asoschisi, yuqori sifatli gamburgerni o'ylab topdi va xaridorlarga kompaniyaning Illinoys shtatining Normal shahridagi birinchi manzilida "biftekburger" sifatida taklif qildi. [42] Bu gamburger uni tayyorlashda T-suyakli biftek va sirloin biftekining maydalangan go'shti kombinatsiyasidan foydalangan. [42] Biftek burgerlari - Steak 'n Shake restoranlarining asosiy menyusi, [42] va kompaniyaning ro'yxatdan o'tgan savdo belgilariga "original biftekburger" va "biftekburgerlar bilan mashhur" kiradi. [43] Steak 'n Shake -ning "Prime Steakburgers" tanlovi hozirda brisket va chakka mo'ljallangan. [44]

Mol go'shti odatiy holdir, garchi boshqa qo'zichoq va cho'chqa go'shti ham ishlatilishi mumkin. [45] Go'sht maydalangan [46] yoki tug'ralgan. [47]

Avstraliyada biftekli burger - bu biftekli sendvich, unda go'sht emas, balki butun biftek bor. [48]

Biftek gamburgerlari har xil darajada tayyor bo'lishi mumkin. [49]

Biftek burgerlariga salat, piyoz va pomidor kabi standart gamburger qo'shimchalari bilan xizmat qilish mumkin. [49] Ba'zilarida pishloq, [49] pastırma, qovurilgan tuxum, qo'ziqorin, [50] qo'shimcha go'sht, [51] va boshqalar kabi qo'shimcha qo'shimchalar bo'lishi mumkin.

Burger King, Carl's Jr., Hardee's, IHOP, Steak 'n Shake, Mr. Steak va Freddy's kabi turli xil fastfud do'konlari va restoranlar - bozor biftek burgerlari. [41] [43] [52] [53] [54] Ba'zi restoranlarda keksa mol go'shtidan tayyorlangan yuqori sifatli burgerlar taklif etiladi. [55] Bundan tashqari, ko'plab restoranlarda turli vaqtlarda "biftek burger" atamasi ishlatilgan. [53]

Qo'shma Shtatlardagi ba'zi beysbol bog'lari o'z gamburgerlarini biftek burgerlari deb atashadi, masalan, Nebraska shtatining Omaxadagi Jonni Rozenblatt stadioni. [56]

Burger King 1979 yilda Sirloin Steak sendvichini menyuni kengaytirish doirasida taqdim etdi, bu esa o'z navbatida kompaniyani korporativ qayta qurish ishlarining bir qismi edi. [41] Bu kesilgan biftekdan yasalgan bitta cho'zinchoq pirojnoe bo'lib, u kunjut urug'idan tayyorlangan. [57] [58] Burger King taklif qiladigan qo'shimcha biftek burgerlari - Angus Bekon Cheddar Ranch Steak Burger, Angus Bacon & Cheese Steak Burger va cheklangan miqdorda to'ldirilgan Steakhouse Burger. [41]

2004 yilda Steak 'n Shake Burger Kingni termin ishlatgani uchun sudga berdi Biftek burger menyu punktlaridan biri bilan birgalikda, bunday foydalanish savdo belgisi huquqlarini buzgan deb da'vo qilmoqda. [59] [60] (Ma'lumotlarga ko'ra St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Burger Kingning advokatlari Steak 'n Shake kompaniyasining bosh direktorini Steak' n Shake -ning biftekli qurbonligining aniq mazmuni to'g'risida sudda "panjara qilishdi." [59] Ish sudda hal qilindi. [61]

AQSh va Kanada

Gamburger AQShning milliy taomlari hisoblanadi. [62] Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va Kanadada gamburgerlarni ikkita asosiy turga bo'lish mumkin: tez tayyorlanadigan gamburgerlar va uylarda va restoranlarda alohida tayyorlangan burgerlar. Ikkinchisi ko'pincha turli xil qo'shimchalar bilan tayyorlanadi, jumladan, salat, pomidor, piyoz va ko'pincha dilimlenmiş tuzlangan bodring (yoki tuzlangan taom). Frantsuz kartoshkasi ko'pincha burgerga hamroh bo'ladi. Pishloq (odatda qayta ishlangan pishloq bo'laklari, lekin ko'pincha Cheddar, Shveytsariya, qalampir yoki ko'k), yoki to'g'ridan -to'g'ri go'shtli bo'lakda eritiladi yoki tepasida maydalanadi.

Ziravorlar gamburgerga qo'shilishi yoki ketchup, xantal, mayonez, lazzat, salat soslari va barbekyu sosini o'z ichiga olishi mumkin.

  • Burgerlarning standart qo'shimchalari joylashuvga bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin, ayniqsa milliy yoki mintaqaviy franchayzalar bo'lmagan restoranlarda.
  • Restoranlar bir nechta go'shtli pirogli burgerlarni taklif qilishlari mumkin. Eng keng tarqalgan variantlar-bu ikki va uch barburjer, lekin Kaliforniyada joylashgan In-N-Out burger tarmog'i bir paytlar "100x100" deb nomlangan yuzta pirogli sendvichni sotdi. [63]
  • Pastrami burgerlarini Yuta shtatining Solt -Leyk -Siti shahrida berish mumkin. [64]
  • Qovurilgan eritma ikki bo'lak javdar noni orasidagi qovurilgan, qovurilgan piyoz va pishloqdan iborat. Keyin sendvich sariyog 'bilan qovuriladi.
  • Slayder - bu kichkina kichkina bulka ustida xizmat qiladigan va odatda mayda tug'ralgan piyoz sepilgan juda kichik kvadrat gamburger pirogi. Dastlabki iqtiboslarga ko'ra, bu nom AQSh bortida paydo bo'lgan. Dengiz flotining kemalari, moyli burgerlarning kema panjarasi bo'ylab qayiqni siljitishi va siljishi natijasida. [65] [66] Boshqa versiyalarda, "slayder" atamasi harbiy aerodromlarda parvoz chizig'ining gamburgerlari xizmatidan kelib chiqqan, ular juda yog'li bo'lgani uchun, ular birdan o'tib ketishgan, yoki kichik o'lchamlari ularga "pastga" siljish imkonini bergan. tomoq bir yoki ikki tishlashda.
  • Kanadaning Alberta shahrida "kubie burger" - bu presslangan Ukraina kolbasasidan (kubasa) tayyorlangan gamburger. [67]
  • Viskonsin shtatida va O'rta G'arbiy G'arbda keng tarqalgan sariyog 'burgeri - bu oddiy burger bo'lib, uning ustiga sariyog' solingan yoki juda yog'langan bulka bo'ladi. Bu Culver restoranlari tarmog'ining imzo menyusi. [68]
  • Fat Boy - bu chili go'shtli sosli, gamburger, Manitobaning Vinnipeg shahridagi yunon burger restoranlaridan kelib chiqqan [69].
  • Minnesota shtatida "Juicy Lucy" (shuningdek, "Jucy Lucy" deb yoziladi) - bu gamburger, uning tepasida emas, balki go'shtli pirog ichida pishloq bor. Pishloqning bir bo'lagi xom go'sht bilan o'ralgan va eriguncha pishiriladi, natijada pirog ichida pishloqning eritilgan yadrosi paydo bo'ladi. Bu qaynab turgan pishloq birinchi lahzada chiqib ketadi, shuning uchun serverlar tez -tez mijozlarga sendvichni iste'mol qilishdan oldin bir necha daqiqa sovutib qo'yishni buyuradilar.
  • Kam uglevodli burger - bu gamburger, bulochkasiz tayyorlanadi va uning o'rniga katta bo'laklarga mayonez yoki xantal qo'shiladi, ular asosan sos sifatida ishlatiladi. [70] [71] [72]
  • Keizo Shimamoto tomonidan ixtiro qilingan ramen burger - bu an'anaviy buloch o'rniga siqilgan ramen noodleli ikkita disk o'rtasida joylashgan gamburger pirogi. [73] - bu buchaklar o'rniga ikkita sirlangan donutli pastırma cheeseburger. [68] - chizburger, bu erda gamburger panjara o'rniga bug'lanadi. U Konnektikutda ixtiro qilingan. [68]

Frantsuz

2012 yilda, NDP kabinetining tadqiqotiga ko'ra, frantsuzlar har bir kishiga yiliga 14 ta gamburgerni iste'mol qilib, ularni dunyoda to'rtinchi, Evropada esa inglizlardan ortda qoldirgan. [74]

Gira Conseil tomonidan 2013 yilda Frantsiyada gamburger iste'moli bo'yicha o'tkazilgan tadqiqotga ko'ra, an'anaviy frantsuz restoranlarining 75 foizi o'z menyusida kamida bitta gamburger taklif qiladi va bu restoranlarning uchdan bir qismi taomlar assortimenti bo'yicha etakchiga aylanadi. qovurg'a bifteklari, panjara yoki baliq oldida. [75]

Meksika shahri

Meksikada burger (chaqiriladi) gamburglar) jambon [76] va go'shtli pattining ustiga qovurilgan Amerika pishloqining bo'laklari bilan xizmat qiladi. Topinglarga avakado, jalapeno bo'laklari, maydalangan marul, piyoz va pomidor kiradi. Bulochkada mayonez, ketchup va xantal bor. Ba'zi qismlarga cho'chqa go'shti beriladi, uni qovurilgan yoki go'shtli pirog bilan birga qovurish mumkin. Ananas bo'lagi ham odatiy variant bo'lib, uning o'zgarishi "Gavayi gamburgeri" deb nomlanadi.

Ba'zi restoranlarning gamburgerlarida barbekyu sousi ham bor, boshqalari maydalangan pirogni sirloin, pastor go'shti, barbeku yoki qovurilgan tovuq ko'kragi bilan almashtiradi. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridan kelgan ko'plab burger zanjirlarini Meksikaning hamma joylarida topish mumkin, jumladan, Carl's Jr., Sonic, shuningdek, McDonald's va Burger King kabi global tarmoqlar.

Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiya

Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiyadagi gamburgerlar AQShnikiga juda o'xshaydi va High Streetda AQShdagi kabi ikkita katta zanjir ustunlik qiladi. - McDonald's va Burger King. Ikkala mamlakatga taklif qilinadigan menyular deyarli bir xil, lekin Buyuk Britaniyada porsiyalar hajmi kichikroq. Irlandiyada Supermacs oziq -ovqat do'koni butun mamlakat bo'ylab keng tarqalgan bo'lib, uning menyusida gamburger xizmat qiladi. Irlandiyada Abrakebabra (kabob sotishni boshlagan) va Eddi Roket ham asosiy zanjirlardir.

Buyuk ikki AQShning asl va tub raqibi. Gigantlar, asosan, Wimpy Bar nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan inglizlarning tez tayyorlanadigan Wimpy tarmog'i edi (1954 yilda Londonning Koventri ko'chasidagi Lion burchaklar uyida ochilgan), u o'z gamburgerlarini ingliz uslubidagi chipli plastinkada, vilkalar pichoq bilan birga olib kelib, etkazib berardi. mijozlar stoli. 1970-yillarning oxirida, McDonald's bilan raqobatlashish uchun [77] Wimpy Amerika uslubidagi qarshi xizmat ko'rsatuvchi restoranlarni ochishni boshladi va o'sha paytdan boshlab 1989-1990 yillar mobaynida restoran Burger Kings nomi bilan o'zgartirilganda, brend Buyuk Britaniyaning ko'plab ko'chalarida g'oyib bo'ldi. -ikkala brendning egasi, Grand Metropolitan. A management buyout in 1990 split the brands again and now Wimpy table-service restaurants can still be found in many town centres whilst new counter-service Wimpys are now often found at motorway service stations.

Hamburgers are also available from mobile kiosks, commonly known as “burger vans", particularly at outdoor events such as football matches. Burgers from this type of outlet are usually served without any form of salad — only fried onions and a choice of tomato ketchup, mustard or brown sauce.

Chip shops, particularly in the West Midlands and North-East of England, Scotland and Ireland, serve battered hamburgers called batter burgers. This is where the burger patty, by itself, is deep-fat-fried in batter and is usually served with chips.

Hamburgers and veggie burgers served with chips and salad, are standard pub grub menu items. Many pubs specialize in "gourmet" burgers. These are usually high quality minced steak patties, topped with items such as blue cheese, brie, avocado, anchovy mayonnaise, et cetera. Some British pubs serve burger patties made from more exotic meats including venison burgers (sometimes nicknamed Bambi Burgers), bison burgers, ostrich burgers and in some Australian themed pubs even kangaroo burgers can be purchased. These burgers are served in a similar way to the traditional hamburger but are sometimes served with a different sauce including redcurrant sauce, mint sauce and plum sauce.

In the early 21st century "premium" hamburger chain and independent restaurants have arisen, selling burgers produced from meat stated to be of high quality and often organic, usually served to eat on the premises rather than to take away. [78] Chains include Gourmet Burger Kitchen, Ultimate Burger, Hamburger Union and Byron Hamburgers in London. Independent restaurants such as Meatmarket and Dirty Burger developed a style of rich, juicy burger in 2012 which is known as a dirty burger or third-wave burger. [79]

In recent years Rustlers has sold pre-cooked hamburgers reheatable in a microwave oven in the United Kingdom. [80]

In the UK, as in North America and Japan, the term "burger" can refer simply to the patty, be it beef, some other kind of meat, or vegetarian.

Australia and New Zealand

Fast food franchises sell American-style fast food hamburgers in Australia and New Zealand. The traditional Australasian hamburgers are usually bought from fish and chip shops or milk bars, rather than from chain restaurants. These traditional hamburgers are becoming less common as older-style fast food outlets decrease in number. The hamburger meat is almost always ground beef, or "mince" as it is more commonly referred to in Australia and New Zealand. They commonly include tomato, lettuce, grilled onion and meat as minimum—in this form, known in Australia as a "plain hamburger", which often also includes a slice of beetroot—and, optionally, can include cheese, beetroot, pineapple, a fried egg and bacon. If all these optional ingredients are included, it is known in Australia as "burger with the lot". [81] [82] The term 'burger' is also applied to any hot sandwich using a bun for the bread, even when the filling does not contain beef, such as a chicken burger (generally with chicken breast rather than chicken mince), salmon burger, pulled pork burger, veggie burger, etc. The term 'sandwich' is usually only applied when the bread used is sliced bread.

The only variance between the two countries' hamburgers is that New Zealand's equivalent to "The Lot" often contains a steak (beef) as well. The condiments regularly used are barbecue sauce and tomato sauce. The traditional Australasian hamburger never includes mayonnaise. The McDonald's "McOz" Burger is partway between American and Australian style burgers, having beetroot and tomato in an otherwise typical American burger however, it is no longer a part of the menu. Likewise, McDonald's in New Zealand created a Kiwiburger, similar to a Quarter Pounder, but features salad, beetroot and a fried egg. The Hungry Jack's (Burger King) "Aussie Burger" has tomato, lettuce, onion, cheese, bacon, beetroot, egg, ketchup and a meat patty, while adding pineapple is an upcharge. It is essentially a "Burger with the lot", but uses the standard HJ circular breakfast Egg, rather than the fully fried egg used by local fish shops. [83]

China

In China, due to the branding of their sandwiches by McDonald's and KFC restaurants in China, the word "burger" (汉堡) refers to all sandwiches that are consist of two pieces of bun and a meat patty in between. This has led to confusions when Chinese nationals try to order sandwiches with meat fillings other than beef in fast-food restaurants in North America. [84]

A popular Chinese street food, known as roujiamo (肉夹馍), consists of meat (most commonly pork) sandwiched between two buns. Roujiamo has been called the "Chinese hamburger". [85] Since the sandwich dates back to the Qin dynasty (221 BC–206 BC) and fits the aforementioned Chinese word for burger, Chinese media have claimed that the hamburger was invented in China. [86] [87] [84]

Japan

In Japan, hamburgers can be served in a bun, called hanbāgā (ハンバーガー), or just the patties served without a bun, known as hanbāgu (ハンバーグ) or "hamburg", short for "hamburg steak".

Hamburg steaks (served without buns) are similar to what are known as Salisbury steaks in the U.S. They are made from minced beef, pork or a blend of the two mixed with minced onions, egg, breadcrumbs and spices. They are served with brown sauce (or demi-glace in restaurants) with vegetable or salad sides, or occasionally in Japanese curries. Hamburgers may be served in casual, western style suburban restaurant chains known in Japan as "family restaurants".

Hamburgers in buns, on the other hand, are predominantly the domain of fast food chains. Japan has homegrown hamburger chain restaurants such as MOS Burger, First Kitchen and Freshness Burger. Local varieties of burgers served in Japan include teriyaki burgers, katsu burgers (containing tonkatsu) and burgers containing shrimp korokke. Some of the more unusual examples include the rice burger, where the bun is made of rice, and the luxury 1000-yen (US$10) "Takumi Burger" (meaning "artisan taste"), featuring avocados, freshly grated wasabi, and other rare seasonal ingredients. In terms of the actual patty, there are burgers made with Kobe beef, butchered from cows that are fed with beer and massaged daily. McDonald's Japan also recently launched a McPork burger, made with U.S. pork. McDonald's has been gradually losing market share in Japan to these local hamburger chains, due in part to the preference of Japanese diners for fresh ingredients and more refined, "upscale" hamburger offerings. [88] Burger King once retreated from Japan, but re-entered the market in Summer 2007 in cooperation with the Korean owned Japanese fast-food chain Lotteria.

Denmark

In Denmark, the hamburger was introduced in 1949, though it was called the bøfsandwich. There are many variations. While the original bøfsandwich was simply a generic meat patty containing a mix of beef and horse meat, though with slightly different garnish (mustard, ketchup and soft onions), it has continued to evolve. Today, a bøfsandwich usually contains a beef patty, pickled cucumber, raw, pickled, fried and/or soft onions, pickled red beets, mustard, ketchup, remoulade, and perhaps most strikingly, is often often overflowing with brown gravy, which is sometimes even poured on top of the assembled bøfsandwich. The original bøfsandwich is still on the menu at the same restaurant from which it originated in 1949, now run by the grandson of the original owner. [89]

Following the popularity of the bøfsandwich, many variations sprung up, using different types of meat instead of the beef patty. One variation, the flæskestegssandwich, grew especially popular. This variation replaces the minced beef patty with slices of pork loin or belly, and typically uses sweet-and-sour pickled red cabbage, mayonnaise, mustard, and pork rinds as garnish. [90]

Today, the bøfsandwich, flæskestegssandwich, and their many variations co-exist with the more typical hamburger, with the opening of the first Burger King restaurant in 1977 popularizing the original dish in Denmark. Many local, high-end burger restaurants dot the major cities, including Popl, an offshoot of Noma.


Contents

Origins Edit

During the early 1960s, American businessman and inventor Bill Lear successfully launched the Learjet 23, one of the first light business jets. [2] Several other manufacturers paid heed to this newly-found niche in the global aircraft market, one of these being the German aircraft manufacturer Hamburger Flugzeugbau. At this time, the company was reportedly keen to reassert its authority as a design agency and looking for a suitable commercially viable project in light of limited funding available from the West German government. [3] Having identified the development of its own business jet as a suitable venture, Hamburger Flugzeugbau tasked its design team with producing an innovative small jet aircraft of its own. [2]

The head of Hamburger Flugzeugbau's engineering team, German aeronautical engineer Hans Wocke, had previously designed the Junkers Ju 287, an experimental jet bomber of the Second World War which was the first aircraft to feature forward-swept wings. [4] [5] This experience strongly influenced the decision to adopt a forward-swept wing for the new design, which became known as the HFB 320 or the Hansa Jet, a more spacious cabin could be achieved than that of the Learjet, while remaining just as fast by minimising drag. [2] The aircraft's aerodynamics were shaped by in excess of 2,000 hours of model-based testing performed in various wind tunnels at site such as the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt in Göttingen, the Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium in Amsterdam, and Modane in France. [3]

The selection of the American General Electric CJ610 turbojet engine to power the design was a straightforward choice at the time, there was no other compact turbojets that had reached quantity manufacture yet. [2] It provided some benefits, such as a relatively high thrust output, but was both noisy and fuel-hungry. Despite this power, the Hansa Jet required a runway length of roughly 5,900 feet, preventing it from using most smaller airports thus limiting its practicality. [2] Possessing a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 20,280-pounds, it was a relatively heavy aircraft compared with several competing business jets, such as the pre-existing Learjet 23 that had motivated the Hansa Jet's development. [6] [2]

While the German manufacturer would construct the majority of the airframe, including the fuselage, engine pods and control system within its own factory, Hamburger Flugzeugbau formed partnerships with multiple other aircraft manufactures, including Spain's CASA, Dutch Fokker and American Lockheed Corporation, which produced several other elements of the airframe abroad at their own facilities. [6] On 18 March 1964, assembly of the first prototype Hansa Jet was completed its use in a round of ground-based testing commenced immediately thereafter. [3]

Into flight Edit

On 21 April 1964, the prototype conducted its maiden flight during the following month, it was exhibited at the Hanover Air Show. [3] A second prototype was flown on 19 October 1964. [7] After a year of certification flight testing, on 12 May 1965, the first prototype crashed, resulting in the death of Hamburger Flugzeugbau's chief test pilot the cause was determined to have been the occurrence of an unrecoverable deep stall which had been induced by the design of the T-tail. [8] As a consequence of the accident, various modifications were introduced to improve the aircraft's stall characteristics, including the installation of a stick pusher. [2]

Assembly of the first ten production aircraft commenced during May 1965, the first of these reportedly flew on 2 February 1966. The granting of type certification by German authorities was achieved on 23 February 1967, certification from the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) followed on 7 April 1967. Deliveries commenced during the following year. [2] According to aviation journalist Richard Collins, Hamburger Flugzeugbau's sales and service teams appeared to make only half-hearted efforts, which led to little customer interest in comparison to other business jets. In the long run, this inability to generated sales soon brought about the end of the programme. [2]

Factors such as increased competition from newer executive jets and a comparatively poor safety record had contributed to dwindling orders during the late 1960s during 1973, production of the type was ceased. According to EADS, the multinational successor company to Hamburger Flugzeugbau, the decision to terminate further development efforts involving the Hansa Jet had been attributed to the intense international competition from rival manufacturers, as well as a decline in value of the U.S. dollar during this period. [6]

In 1969, the $840,000 HFB 320 was to be developed into the $1.7 million, Mach 0.76 HFB 330: flight-testing was to start in 1971 for FAR 25 certification by late 1972. It would have been stretched by 27.5 in (70 cm) and powered by Garrett ATF3 turbofans with thrust reversers for short-field operation. A 7,300 lb (3,300 kg) fuel capacity would have gave it a maximum endurance over seven hours and a transcontinental range of 2,000 mi (1,700 nmi 3,200 km) with five people. [9]

The HFB 320 Hansa Jet is a mid-wing monoplane of a somewhat conventional layout, being powered by a rear-mounted twin jet engines beneath a T-tail. Constructed entirely of metal, it has a 10-seat passenger cabin and retractable undercarriage. As certified, the Hansa Jet can carry up to 12 passengers. Its General Electric CJ610 turbojet engines enabled the aircraft to achieve a maximum speed of 486 knots along with a maximum endurance in excess of 1,200 nm. [6] The decision to mount these engines far aft contributed to the relatively quiet cabin. [2]

An unusual feature of the Hansa Jet is its forward-swept wing, which is mid-mounted in the fuselage. This arrangement provided multiple benefits, not least maximising the aircraft's speed capabilities. [2] It also allowed the main wing spar to pass through the fuselage behind the passenger cabin, thus leaving it unencumbered by carry-through spars or similar structural elements this choice facilitated the adoption of a longer cabin with more seats while maintaining adequate headroom in the small-diameter fuselage. [2] As of 2019 [update] , the HFB 320 remains the only civilian jet ever to have a forward-swept wing.

For added safety, the Hansa Jet was furnished with triple-redundant systems. It was also provisioned with a fully automated fuel system, having a 1,075-gallon capacity distributed across multiple fuel tanks located in the fuselage, wing, and wing tips. [2] Early aircraft were known to wear out their brakes at a high rate during landings while a drogue parachute was made available as an optional. The brake issue was later effectively addressed via the availability of more substantial brake units and the introduction of thrust reversers. [2]

The first customer for the Hansa Jet was the Italian construction materials manufacturer Italcementi, which received the first delivery on 26 September 1967. [10] Other corporate purchasers of the HFB 320 included the Argentinian state-owned Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales oil company. [ citation needed ]

During 1963, the German Air Force placed an order for 13 HFB 320s. [ citation needed ] As part of the evaluation of the type, two preproduction aircraft were delivered to the ErpSt 61 test wing at Oberpfaffenhoffen in 1966. [1] [11] As a consequence of this evaluation, a total of six aircraft were ordered for VIP transport duties by the German Air Force deliveries of these aircraft commenced during 1969. [1]

Additionally, a further eight Hansa jets were purchased by the German Air Force for providing electronic countermeasure (ECM) training to air crews these aircraft were delivered between August 1976 and April 1982. During 1985, the German Air Force decided to replace its Hansas with newer Canadair Challengers in the VIP role the service's ECM aircraft remained operational until their withdrawn during 1994. [1]


HAMBURGER FATTI IN CASA

Morbidissimi, Succosi, Saporiti: hamburger fatti in casa, ecco come fare gli hamburger di carne senza uova con pochi ingredienti ma renderli morbidi e succosi, non asciutti e saporiti. Gli hamburger sono una preparazione a base di carne macinata a scelta tra vitello, pollo, maiale o manzo. Io prediligo gli hamburger di carne di manzo. L’ideale è usare una carne non eccessivamente magra per evitare che si asciughino troppo in cottura, in alternativa, per carni come pollo o vitello, potrebbe essere utile fare degli hamburger piuttosto sottili e non molto spessi così da cuocerli più velocemente ed evitare che si secchino.

La ricetta degli hamburger di carne è molto semplice e prevede l’aggiunta di parmigiano ed erbe aromatiche nell’impasto così da renderlo davvero saporito: una ricetta che preparo da anni. Mi raccomando: la cosa più importante è che la carne deve restare a temperatura ambiente per almeno 30 minuti, mai fredda di frigorifero! Per dare la forma all’hamburger di carne potete usare l’ apposito attrezzo che pressa anche la carne oppure un semplice coppapasta o taglia biscotti del diametro di 10-12 cm. Dopo averli preparati potete anche congelarli in sacchetti gelo.

La cottura è tipicamente sulla piastra o sulla griglia ma, vedrete, che anche la cottura in friggitrice ad aria consentirà di ottenere un succulento hamburger di carne, senza grassi (vedrete il grasso in eccesso colare sul fondo della airfryer) e morbidissimo. Ovviamente potrete decidere di cuocere l’hamburger più al sangue o a media cottura. Da gustare nel panino con salse come ketchup o maionese, patatine fritte, insalata, pomodori, bacon e tutti gli ingredienti che preferite oppure semplicemente al piatto.

QUI puoi trovare TUTTE le ricette con la FRIGGITRICE AD ARIA!

Ora non vi resta che leggere la ricetta degli hamburger fatti in casa, fatemi sapere se vi è piaciuta. Alla prossima, Ivana.


Hamburger fatti in casa: 5 ricette per tutti i gusti

Iniziamo con un grande classico: hamburger di carne di manzo servito nel panino con insalata, formaggio e pomodoro. Proseguiamo poi con una variante: un burger di carne bianca, con pollo e zucchine. Per gli amanti del mare c’è poi unu fish burger servito con zucchine grigliate. Le due tipologie di quinoa bianca e nera sono protagoniste di una versione vegetariana, mentre quella con ceci, patate e freschi faranno felici anche gli amici vegani. Insomma, siete pronti a impastare?

Hamburger classico

Si tratta del tradizionale panino con hamburger ma preparato in casa e servito con insalata, pomodoro e fette di formaggio. Per un tocco in più accompagnatelo con patatine fritte.

Ingredienti per 4 persone

  • 300 g di carne di manzo macinata
  • 4 panini classici da hamburger
  • q.b. di sale
  • q.b. di pepe
  • q.b. di insalata
  • 1 cipolla rossa
  • 2 pomodori rossi
  • 4 fette di formaggio tipo cheddar
  1. In una capiente ciotola mettete la carne macinata, il sale e pepe. Mescolate tutto accuratamente, prelevatene un po’ e iniziate a dargli la forma di una “polpetta” quindi, schiacciatela con le mani. Per una maggiore regolarità potete usare l’apposito attrezzo per fare gli hamburger o, in alternativa, un coppapasta, livellando con il dorso di un cucchiaio. Formati tutti gli hamburger, lasciateli riposare in frigo per mezz’ora.
  2. Scaldate la piastra e mettete a tostare i panini tagliati a metà. Lavate e affettate i pomodori, sciacquate le foglie di lattuga, sbucciate e affettate la cipolla.
  3. Prendete gli hamburger dal frigo, lasciateli almeno 10 minuti a temperatura ambiente per evitare lo shock termico e schiacciateli al centro per contrastare il rigonfiamento mentre si cuociono. Grigliateli per circa 8 minuti girandoli a metà cottura.
  4. Mettete una foglia di insalata su ciascuna base dei panini, qualche rondella di cipolla rossa, poi l’hamburger, una fetta di formaggio, il pomodoro e ancora lattuga. Servite caldi.

Hamburger di pollo e zucchine

Questa variante di burger vede il petto di pollo mescolato con le zucchine tritate. Scegliete se gustarli in un panino, magari accompagnato da una salsa allo yogurt, o direttamente al piatto, con un contorno di insalata.

Ingredienti per 4 persone

  • 500 g di petto di pollo macinato
  • 2 uova
  • 2-3 zucchine
  • 30 g di pangrattato
  • 3 cucchiai di sale grosso
  • q.b. di sale
  • q.b. di pepe
  1. Per prima cosa occupatevi delle zucchine: lavatele, eliminate le estremità e grattugiatele. Sistematele in uno scolapasta, con un po’ di sale grosso e un peso sopra, per eliminare l’acqua di vegetazione. Fatele riposare almeno mezz’ora.
  2. Eliminate, quindi, il sale in eccesso con un po’ di carta da cucina umida, mettete le zucchine in una ciotola con il petto di pollo macinato, un pizzico di sale, il pepe, le uova e il pangrattato. Mescolate fino a ottenere un composto omogeneo.
  3. Prelevate una parte creando i burger, schiacciateli con il palmo della mano per dare una forma regolare. Fateli riposare per mezz’ora in frigo.
  4. Cuoceteli in forno a 180 °C per 15-20 minuti o grigliandoli su una piastra rovente per 8 minuti, girandoli a metà cottura. Servite caldi.

Fish burger

Preparato con un merluzzo e pancarrè, questo fish burger è un’ottima soluzione per far mangiare il pesce ai bambini.

Ingredienti per 4 persone

  • 500 g di merluzzo
  • 50 g di pancarrè
  • 2 uova
  • q.b. di pangrattato
  • q.b. di scorza di limone
  • un rametto di prezzemolo
  • q.b. di farina 00
  • q.b. di sale
  • q.b. di olio extravergine d’oliva
  • 4 panini per hamburger
  • 50 g di songino
  • 2 zucchine medie
  1. Per creare i fish burger, riducete in pezzi grossolani il merluzzo, mettetelo in un mixer, unite le fette di pancarrè, un pizzico di sale, la scorza del limone, il prezzemolo e frullate tutto. Trasferite il composto in una ciotola, unite un uovo e lavorate fino a rendere l’impasto malleabile e asciutto. Qualora risultasse troppo umido, unite uno o due cucchiai di pangrattato.
  2. Ottenuta una consistenza compatta, prelevatene una parte e iniziate a lavorarla come fosse una polpetta, per poi sistemarla su un piano di lavoro e schiacciarla leggermente con il palmo della mano. Ottenuta la forma desiderata, lasciateli riposare in frigo, coperti per almeno 30 minuti.
  3. Nel frattempo, lavate e affettate le zucchine finissime e grigliatele sulla piastra. Conditele con sale e olio e tenetele da parte.
  4. Trascorso il tempo, preparate 3 ciotole, una con la farina, una con l’uovo sbattuto a cui aggiungerete un pizzico di sale, e una con il pangrattato. Passate i fish burger in ciascuna delle tre. Per una panatura più croccante, fate il passaggio due volte. Scaldate l’olio in una padella antiaderente e fateli cuocere per 7-8 minuti, girandoli a metà cottura. Poi, sollevate con una schiumarola e tenete da parte, adagiando su carta assorbenteda cucina per eliminare il grasso in eccesso. In alternativa potete cuocere i fish burger in forno a 160 °C per 15 minuti.
  5. Scaldate una piastra e tostate i panini tagliati a metà. Lavate il songino, sistemate qualche foglia sulla base del panino, aggiungete poi il fish burger, qualche zucchina e infine il cappello del panino. Servite caldo.

Burger vegetale con quinoa e spinaci

Dopo avervi dato dei suggerimenti per realizzare dei burger vegetali, ecco un’altra versione che speriamo vi piaccia, a base di quinoa e spinaci.

Ingredienti per 4 persone

  • 150 g di quinoa bianca
  • 80 g di quinoa nera
  • 300 ml di acqua
  • 200 g di spinaci freschi
  • 3-4 cucchiai di pangrattato
  • 2 albumi
  • q.b. di olio extravergine di oliva
  • q.b. di sale
  • q.b. di pepe
  1. La prima cosa da fare è lavare accuratamente la quinoa e tenerla in ammollo per un paio d’ore mettetela poi a bollire in abbondante acqua, circa il doppio del suo peso. È importante, inoltre, che la cottura avvenga con coperchio perché assorbirà tantissima acqua. Lasciate cuocere per 15-20 minuti a fuoco medio.
  2. Nel frattempo lavate e asciugate gli spinaci. Fateli appassire in un padella coperta e, appena avranno perso volume, spegnete, scolateli e strizzateli bene. Tritateli a coltello e sistemateli in una ciotola.
  3. Scolate la quinoa e aggiungetela alla verdura. Unite anche gli albumi, il pangrattato, il sale e il pepe e mescolate tutto. Create i burger con le mani, coprite e fateli riposare in frigorifero per 30 minuti.
  4. Cuocete i burger di quinoa e spinaci su una piastra calda e leggermente unta d’olio. Fateli dorare da entrambi i lati per circa 7-8 minuti girandoli a metà cottura e servite al piatto.

Burger vegano con ceci e spinaci

L’assenza di proteine animali, compresa la salsa che viene preparata con yogurt di soia, rende questi burger perfetti per chi segue una dieta vegana.

Ingredienti per 4 persone

  • 400 g di ceci già lessati
  • 250 g di spinaci
  • 2 patate
  • un rametto di prezzemolo
  • q.b. di sale
  • q.b. di olio extravergine di oliva
  • 200 g di yogurt di soia al naturale
  • 1 cetriolo
  • 1 spicchio d’aglio
  • 1 cucchiaio di aceto di mele
  • q.b. di sale
  1. Per prima cosa occupatevi della salsa: lavate e sbucciate il cetriolo, grattugiatelo finemente e mettetelo in uno scolapasta con un peso sopra per 15 minuti, in modo da eliminare l’acqua di vegetazione in eccesso.
  2. Nel frattempo, in una ciotola versate lo yogurt di soia, aggiungete l’aceto di mele, l’aglio sbucciato e affettato e un pizzico di sale. Mescolate tutto e unite il cetriolo grattugiato. Coprite con pellicola trasparente e lasciate riposare in frigo mentre preparate i vegan burger.
  3. Lessate le patata, sbucciatele e schiacciatele. Lavate e lessate gli spinaci, scolateli e strizzateli benissimo, poi sminuzzateli.
  4. Scolate i ceci e passateli nel passaverdure, in modo da eliminare le bucce quindi, versate questa purea in una ciotola assieme alle patate e agli spinaci. Unite il prezzemolo tritato, il sale e mescolate tutto fino a renderlo omogeneo. Create i burger con le mani, copriteli e fateli riposare in frigorifero.
  5. Estraete quindi dal frigo, scaldate un filo d’olio in una padella antiaderente e cuocete i burger per 7-8 minuti, girandoli a metà cottura. Serviteli caldi, aggiungendo un cucchiaio di salsa allo yogurt di soia.

Cosa ne pensate di queste varianti di burger? Preferite i tradizionali o la versione al pesce? Oppure siete amanti della versione vegetariana? Fateci sapere quale preferite.

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